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Advances quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent

2016-08-08 22:01:14

      As living standards improve, people's living environment are increasingly high requirements. In nature there are a lot of microbes, the harmful microbes to humans and animals and plants have great harm, affecting people's health and even life-threatening. Microbial decomposition can also cause a variety of materials, deterioration and corruption, bring significant economic losses. Thus, materials with antibacterial and bactericidal function more and more people's attention, the production of antibacterial materials has become an emerging industry.
      Antibacterial Agents a quaternary ammonium salt
      Quaternary ammonium antibacterial agents is more a study of organic antibacterial agents, since 1935, German G. Domark found alkyl dimethyl chloro
Ammonium germicidal action and use its uniform treatment to prevent wound infection since the quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agent research has been the focus of attention of researchers, the current class of antibacterial agents have been developed to the fifth generation.
      FraI1k1in found that long-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium salt group will have strong antibacterial properties, as one of the main varieties of quaternary ammonium salts of the general rules of the antibacterial effect of such an antibacterial agent with quaternary ammonium salts structural change is similar quaternary ammonium toxic salts of alkyl chains shorter than the length of the alkyl chain big; with toxic than methyl in the alkyl chain looks the same time, with benzyl small; mono alkyl methyl toxicity than with a small, single alkyl toxicity than large double group. As the alkyl chain growth, enhance antibacterial; but to a certain length, but decreased antibacterial activity. Small molecules are organic antibacterial agents have antibacterial activity widely studied, but the presence of small molecules antimicrobial volatile, difficult process, chemical poor stability. It was found that the polymer quaternary ammonium salt group with a long chain alkyl group has good antibacterial properties, while the polymer quaternary ammonium antibacterial agents can not penetrate human skin, but also has more than a small molecule antimicrobial agent performance, high-molecular organic antibacterial become a hotspot in research and development. This article describes the latest research advances related quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agents and their mechanisms, etc., and their applications are reviewed and future development.
      1.1 Antibacterial Agents Water-soluble quaternary ammonium salt
      At present the water-soluble polymer and small molecule quaternary ammonium antibacterial agents have been widely used in water treatment, food, health care, and packaging materials. Antibacterial groups are bonded to the polymer backbone, the resulting antimicrobial polymer materials, can increase the density of antibacterial group, thereby enhancing antibacterial properties. Currently antibacterial agent to study polymer covalently linked mainly quaternary ammonium salts, quaternary salts and Juan pyridine salt type.
US 5411933 [2J reported a quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agent, the salient features of its structure as with unsaturated propynyl on the quaternary nitrogen, such compounds with a very high efficiency, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli which MIC is less than 4, Aspergillus MIC less than 1.6.
      Rui Xin and the like acryloyloxy ammonium 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) co-polymerization, and then use the quaternizing agent dimethyl sulfate cation of the copolymer prepared pyridine quaternary cationic polyacrylamide (Q LV), and we studied their antibacterial properties, discusses its antibacterial mechanism, the results show pyridine quaternary ammonium salt type cationic polyacrylamide has strong antibacterial properties, QPAV solution in a short time and you can make a small dose of E. coli number of viable cells decreased rapidly, and quaternary ammonium highest QPAV samples at concentration of 20mg / L and a contact time of 5min condition, antibacterial rate can reach 100%. By antibacterial properties measurements show that the cationic antimicrobial agent increases its degree of antibacterial rate increases, pyridine quaternary ammonium salt with an alkyl chain quaternary ammonium same, with positive charges between the negatively charged bacterial cells will produce strong electrostatic interactions, thus macromolecules QPAV of bacteria experience a strong adsorption, the higher the degree of cationic macromolecular chain, the greater the positive charge density of the cell adsorption capacity is stronger, so its anti-bacterial properties with increasing degree of cation enhanced.
      Li Yintao etc. A series of single pyridine quaternary ammonium salts, pyridine is the parent, by alkylation of pyridine, quaternized synthesis, and their surface activity and bactericidal activity, sterilizing experimental results show its Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and other bacteria have a bactericidal ability of Candida albicans bactericidal activity up to 98.8% for the other three bacterial inhibition rate reached over 90% At the same time with the increase of the carbon atoms of the pyridine nitrogen atom to which bactericidal activity decreased number.
      Dual quaternary ammonium fungicide with strong bactericidal activity, partly because the molecule having two long chain hydrophobic group; and partly because the molecule has two positively charged N, induced by the molecule positive charge density of the quaternary nitrogen is increased, more favorable fungicides adsorbed molecules on the bacterial surface, thereby changing the permeability of the cell wall, so that the cells rupture. In addition, the fungicide adsorbed to the cell surface, is conducive to a hydrophobic group and a hydrophilic group are deep bacterial cell lipid layer and layer of protein, leading to loss of enzyme activity and protein denaturation. Due to the combined effect of these two effects, so that the fungicide has a strong bactericidal ability. Lijie Deng dodecylamine, formic acid and formaldehyde as raw materials to prepare intermediate long chain tertiary amine, on a long chain tertiary amine and 1,3-dibromopropane synthesized double quaternary ammonium germicides, FTIR its structures were characterized diquaternary yield of 85.4%. Meng Lin and other self-made double-halogenated ethers with long chain tertiary amine, synthesized double quaternary ammonium germicides, evaluated its bactericidal effect, experimental results show that the double quaternary ammonium salt of sulfate-reducing bacteria have a good bactericidal properties, in the case of a high amount of bacteria (1.5 × lO8 a / m1). Bactericidal concentration of only 50 mg / L, can kill 100% of sulfate-reducing bacteria, it is a promising new industrial fungicide.
      Chitosan (chitosan), is the most abundant storage capacity of nature only basic polysaccharide, biocompatible and biodegradable, chemical industry, environmental protection, bio-medicine, food and many other fields has its own extensive and unique Value. In recent years, anti-bacterial properties of chitosan has attracted wide attention as a natural antibacterial agent, the antimicrobial activity has been widely reported. However, due to its low antimicrobial activity, so many researchers have done a lot of work at home and abroad to improve its antibacterial activity. Xu Xia et 8 chitosan was studied in the presence of Ce4 with methyl acryloyloxyethyl a reactive group-dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, the introduction of a strong bactericidal antibacterial agent in the chitosan molecule ,
      The quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan and chitosan infrared spectra showed methacryloyloxy ethyl a-dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride graft copolymer reaction took place, after which Escherichia coli and Candida albicans 30min sterilization rate can reach above 99%, and Staphylococcus aureus sterilization rate of up to 88% killing effect on gram-positive bacteria is weak.
      Zhang Yanyan, who synthesized a hydroxypropyl trimethyl chitosan quaternary ammonium chloride (HACC) using iso-phase method, the experimental analysis, which has good water solubility and higher stability. Wu Di, such as the use of glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan has been modified to enhance positively charged, the high degree of substitution of prepared chitosan quaternary ammonium salt, an acid l raw, neutral and alkaline conditions under both soluble, water-soluble good, which were 0.039 and 0.078mg / ml with respect to the minimum inhibitory concentration of E. coli and S. aureus, compared with chitosan has greatly improved. Zhishen Jia, etc. have been reported quaternized chitosan antibacterial activity related to its molecular weight. Chitosan in acetic acid in water higher antibacterial activity than the acetate concentration increased antimicrobial activity also increased. Quaternized chitosan antibacterial properties than good antibacterial properties of chitosan, chitosan when poor solubility at pH6.5 or more, the molecular weight is between 10000-100000, can inhibit the growth of bacteria, and in a molecular weight of 220,000 when the best antibacterial properties, as well as the average molecular weight of 9300 against Escherichia coli-time performance.
      Ma, who love new quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against a Sai Fuer disinfectant bactericidal effect, HBsAg damaging effects, stability and corrosivity of the experimental observation. The main components of the disinfectant is an alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, supplemented amphoteric surfactants and builders. As a result, an aqueous solution containing a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant 5280mg / L of cloth on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli 3min, Candida albicans 5min, killing rate of 100%. Containing 5000mg / L of the disinfectant, the role of 20min, can I-IBsAg antigenicity completely destroyed. The disinfectant liquid for stainless steel, carbon steel, non-corrosive, non-corrosive to copper basic, mild corrosion of aluminum. Storage for 3 months at 37 ℃, the disinfectant active ingredient fell by an average 1.69%.
      Wang Li and other studies of the quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant bactericidal effect, the main component of fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene methylene bis-octyl ammonium chloride, ammonium lauryl March, a quaternary ammonium salt content of 6.0% . Suspension quantitative germicidal test showed its containing lOOmg / L solution of a quaternary ammonium salt Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus lmin, Candida albicans 5min, killing rate of 99.9%. Bactericidal effect by the influence of organic matter significantly, better stability of the fungicide, placed 14 d at 56 ℃, sterilization effect is no significant change.
      Antibacterial Agents 1.2 Water-insoluble quaternary ammonium salt
      Cationic polymeric quaternary ammonium antibacterial agents especially on water-insoluble quaternary ammonium cationic antimicrobial agents has attracted widespread attention. They have shown good antibacterial properties, and has initially been applied in many ways, especially in water-insoluble quaternary ammonium cationic antimicrobial agents for its sustained, long-term, low toxicity and safe antibacterial properties more interesting. US 4349646 reports polystyrene or crosslinked polystyrene chloromethyl compound as a carrier by carrier and tertiary quaternary structure with different reactive chlorine methyl ammonium center will have disinfection properties of season in the form of an ammonium salt of the C-N bond immobilized onto polymer carrier to obtain the insoluble polymer different structures of quaternary ammonium salts, such polymers can effectively kill the bacteria, fungi, viruses and algae. US4826924 E2] reported to chloromethyl styrene homopolymer or a copolymer of divinyl benzene with a water-insoluble carrier prepared Polyquaternium antimicrobial agent. The polymers of bacteria, fungi have long-lasting, highly effective antimicrobial resistance, within 2 ~ 5min to kill almost all of the test under conditions typical of gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria, can be used for water treatment, building materials and agriculture and other fields. US 5104649 E2 J reported by polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride and sulfur dioxide under ultraviolet light and chlorine chloride role in the system of the carrier, the carrier and then reacted with a diamine and quaternization of the appropriate structure to prepare another class water-insoluble polymeric antimicrobial agent. Such antibacterial agents have a very broad spectrum of activity can be used in a fluid (water or air) disinfection or antimicrobial use as food packaging materials.
Hin, Banyan circumferential surface of the cellulose fiber graft monomer is a quaternary ammonium salt group, a methacryloxy group-dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (I BC). The resulting clear antimicrobial effects of the compound, 5min the number of viable cells in the suspension of at least six orders of magnitude decrease; with prolonged contact time, slowing down the speed of the supernatant concentration of bacteria decreases. It proved antibacterial fiber bacteria have a strong adsorption capacity, adsorption ability of viable stronger results showed that the sterilization process antibacterial material by adsorption and sterilization step structure, wherein the adsorption process fast and slow sterilization process .
Tiller glass slides, etc. In order to successfully covalent bond containing a series of long-chain alkyl (C0 ~ 6) poly (4-vinyl) pyridine (PVP). In order to accurately determine the antibacterial properties, they cultured bacterial suspension was sprayed on the synthetic slide, naturally dried, placed in a petri dish with agar as a medium. It was found, in which the alkyl group has bactericidal optimal performance, the sterilization rate can reach 94 ± 4%. Tiller, etc. and do further research, they have alkylpyridinium (hexyl-PVP), commercialized experiments confirmed five kinds of material surface grafting, bactericidal effects are close to 99%.
       Lin Jian Tiller, etc. On the basis of the above work, but also discovered a new type of long-chain alkyl groups sterilization polyethyleneimine (PEI). They are a range of different amino glass surface graft chain length alkyl polyethyleneimines, which have been found to the same group of bactericidal properties optimal sterilization (gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria) effect of up to 98 %. Then in cotton products, a nylon 66, a polyester surface grafting has alkyl polyethyleneimines, ideal sterilization effect, can reach about 97%. Xing Xiaodong et prepared a quaternary ammonium antimicrobial polyethylene film, they are high-pressure mercury lamp as the ultraviolet light source grafting monomer is methyl quaternary polyethylene film acryloyloxyethyl a twelve benzyl chloride ammonium (DI a BC), by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and infrared spectroscopic analysis methods proved successful antibacterial monomer is indeed grafted PE film.
       Kim Lewis and other studies of a surface-contact type sterilization materials, selection of alkylated pyridinium do antibacterial ingredient, the antibacterial monomer grafted onto the polymer PVP chain, synthetic polymer, an antibacterial and anti-microbial polymeric grafted to the glass surface. Antibacterial experiments showed that the killing rate of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis are more than 99%. And when PEI as an antibacterial ingredient antibacterial agents antibacterial effect is not obvious, probably because of its positive charge is not sufficient, then by alkylation, a significant increase in the quaternary ammonium salt of poly cationic antimicrobial activity, has greatly improved the efficiency of sterilization . They also use PEI alkylated after grafting to be made on several common anti-bacterial fabric fabrics, such as cotton, wool, nylon and the like. As a result, all of the anti-bacterial fabric tested bacteria death rate reached 90% or more, in a few cases up to 98%, the sterilization rate of fungi and bacteria sterilization rate almost as high. Wenjie and other antimicrobial active ingredients of the season ammonium compounds assembled on the grid or silica nanoparticles prepared SiO2 modified organic antibacterial agent, the experiment proved that the antibacterial agent having excellent antibacterial properties and heat resistance. Experimental results show that the antibacterial antibacterial agents antibacterial effect on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus are more than 99%. Antibacterial results also indicate that the sample prepared with a higher heat resistance. Zhang sunflower and other ion exchange method will be different quaternary ammonium intercalated into Na-montmorillonite prepared MMT, experiments show that MMT for gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria are It has a strong antibacterial effect, different quaternary ammonium modified montmorillonite different antibacterial activity, wherein the double quaternary ammonium salt modified montmorillonite best antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli minimum inhibitory concentration They were 6.25mg / L and 12.5mg / rrd. They also used scanning electron microscopy and bacterial action montmorillonite different time were observed, results showed that the bacterium is first adsorbed to the surface of montmorillonite, then slowly die. And also MMT immersed in physiological saline at different times were X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis, results show that modified montmorillonite antibacterial activity is adsorbed and released into the solution of quaternary ammonium ions with the results of the action.
      1.3 high molecular mechanism of antimicrobial quaternary ammonium antibacterial agents
      For people antibacterial mechanism of small molecule quaternary ammonium antibacterial agents have been many studies that a small molecule organic antibacterial antibacterial process can be divided into six steps, that is adsorbed to the surface of the bacteria, penetrate the cell wall, and cell membrane, disrupting the cell membranes, resulting in leakage of intracellular material, and finally bacterial death. Quaternary ammonium salt-type contact antibacterial agent after sterilization mechanism of polymer is not very clear, but it is generally believed that its role is also subject to the above-described process steps. Positively charged quaternary ammonium molecule, after the polymer of a relative molecular weight increases, the charge density is increased, since the negatively charged cell surface of microorganisms, but contained within the membrane phospholipids and the hydrolysis of a number of membrane proteins also negatively charged, and therefore, the molecular weight of the antibacterial agent It helps increase the absorption cell and bind to the cell membrane, but due to the molecular weight increases, the molecule becomes large, when the diffusion resistance increases penetrate the cell wall, but in terms of the combined effect of polymer-based antimicrobial agent than after antibacterial and stability of small molecules have the same structure as the monomer greatly improved.
      According to the current research status antibacterial mechanism, according to the site of action of antimicrobial agents can be divided into two categories, one view is that the site of action of antibacterial agents are cell membrane, and another that is a cell wall.
      1.3.1 In the cell membrane is the site of action
       Kawabata et al. J cationic germicides sterilization procedure that follows: Fungicide to rely on a Coulomb force adsorbed charged bacterial surface, diffusion through the cell wall, and the bacterial plasma membrane to fracture, bacterial death due to release of the contents. T. E. C te [25] have reported antimicrobial effect is first adsorbed to the surface of bacterial cells, and then through the cell wall or cell membrane to reach its site of action, such as the cell membrane, respiratory system, enzymes and genetic material and so on. Antibacterial agents at low concentrations only play a role in inhibiting bacterial growth, only play a bactericidal effect when a high concentration of effective antimicrobial agent must have a sufficiently high concentration in order to exert their bactericidal effect at the site of action. Rui Xin and other studies of the antimicrobial mechanism of poly (4-vinyl pyridine a quaternary ammonium salt of acrylamide), the E. coli cells contained j3-galactosidase of nitrophenol a j3-D-galactosidase (ONPG) the hydrolysis reaction with substrate specificity, can catalyze the reaction of ONPG solution of o-nitrophenol (the ONP), measured by a spectrophotometer absorbance at 420nm to determine whether the rupture of the cell membrane of E. coli. Experiments proved that the non plus antimicrobial solution is almost zero absorbance at 420nm, showed live bacteria cell membrane intact. Add to broth antibacterial agent, absorbance over time gradually increased, suggesting that the added antibacterial agent, destroys the cell membrane of bacteria, releasing 8-galactosidase, the bacteria die. Thus can be drawn, antibacterial quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agent role and its essence is to sterilization, rather than inhibit bacterial growth. Preliminary analysis of antibacterial mechanism pyridine quaternary cationic polyacrylamide is positively charged antimicrobial agent is first adsorbed to the cell surface, penetrate the cell wall, in conjunction with the cell membrane lipid layer and the protein layer, hindering the bacteria on the outside normal ion exchange and material exchange, and damage control cell plasma membrane permeability, intracellular material leakage, leading to bacterial death.
       Kim Lewis and other studies of quaternary polycationic antibacterial mechanism, and the antimicrobial activity of different of different molecular weight quaternary ammonium salt polymer. The results show that in order to achieve a better sterilizing effect, immobilized polycationic must be long enough chains. And by propidium iodide staining main goal is to prove a quaternary ammonium salt membrane, because this can only be a red fluorescent dye into the cells of the cell membrane damage, cell membrane damage in this experiment are described sterilization mechanism sterilization polymer surface contact, long chain polymer can pass through the outer cell wall of the microorganism cells active portion extends into the cell membrane and thus kill the cells.
      Gold camps synthesized a new quaternary ammonium salts of long chain alkyl metronidazole, which dichloro ether as coupling agent, by connecting metronidazole and tertiary ammonium lauryl synthesized this antibacterial agent. And bactericidal properties and bactericidal mechanisms to do their research. Experiments show that good sustained release properties of the antibacterial agent for sulfate-reducing bacteria sterilization performance than dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. The study, in the sterilization process, the positively charged first fungicide selectively adsorbed to the negatively charged cell surface of sulfate-reducing bacteria, forming a layer of a high concentration of ionic groups, changing the cell membrane conductivity, surface tension , solubility, hydrophobic groups and hydrophilic groups, respectively penetrate cell membrane lipid layer and the protein layer, thereby changing the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane permeability, intracellular material leakage, resulting sulfate reducing bacteria in the suffocation death or inhibit their growth. Meanwhile, the functional group of metronidazole, alkoxy and the like can be used with a number of groups on the protein react to form complexes, so that protein denaturation, metronidazole 5-NO2 under anaerobic conditions can be reduced to an amino group, damage DNA thymine, or derivatives thereof, leading to DNA helicase, the antimicrobial agent is carried by a long chain alkyl group can reduce the cell wall permeable and semi-permeable membrane damage, prevent or interfere with the nutrients into the cells in the body so that metabolism of bacteria out of balance, leading to bacterial death and thus damage the physiological activity.
      Viktor and other studies of antibacterial mechanism 16 kinds of disinfectants on the genus Escherichia, including 11 kinds of quaternary ammonium salts and five other ingredients combined with a quaternary ammonium salt, and studied its effect on the biosynthesis and respiratory systems. Studies have shown that the outer membrane active quaternary ammonium compounds belong, bound to the cell membrane up affect cell metabolism, interferes with the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, affecting the energy metabolism of cells. Activity of the enzyme showed a quaternary ammonium salt to the cell membrane is affected, then the penetration of sterilant cell function in the cytoplasm enzyme. It was also found to affect the long-chain organic salt endogenous respiratory chain is shorter than the big compound, to inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with production of disinfectants and processes need to be able to achieve.
      1.3.2 In the cell wall is the site of action
      Lu Dian Nan studied the antibacterial mechanism and antibacterial fiber monomer and grafting of the quaternary ammonium salt monomers that have quaternary ammonium monomers of the bacterial cell wall lysis, and electron microscopy observations show that single experience led to a quaternary ammonium salt agglomeration and cell division, leading to bacterial death. Wu Di and other bacterial cells by measuring the enzyme activity of the quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan antibacterial mechanism, experiments show that adding chitosan quaternary ammonium salt broth is much higher than its activity without antimicrobial agent bacteria, apparently intracellular enzyme spilled outside, indicating that the cell wall protection intracellular material leakage does not occur function decreased significantly. SEM observation that the bacterial cell aggregates by significant antimicrobial effect after cell wall vague, partial deletion. It can be attributed to its antibacterial mechanism acting on the cell wall and have antibacterial effect.
       2 Application Research of Polymeric quaternary ammonium antibacterial agents
      Currently antibacterial materials are widely used in ceramics, glass products, water purifiers, plastic, rubber, fiber, paper, paints, etc., such as refrigerators, washing machines, telephones, and other places antibacterial plastic parts, antibacterial toothbrush, antibacterial food packaging bags , various antibacterial clothes. Species and functional materials are also to diversify, that is, except antibacterial, there decontamination, deodorization, health care and other functions.
      2.1 Application of antibacterial fabric
      With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, and a focus on health and environmental protection, people pay attention to clothing aesthetics and comfort at the same time, clothing and other health functions also put forward higher requirements, in this context, antimicrobial textiles It will become a hot product. As people's awareness of environmental protection, antimicrobial fabric made new demands, including the following aspects:
① selectively kill harmful microorganisms reagent; ② at least semi-permeable manner antibacterial agent is applied to the fabric; ③ ensure adhesion of the antibacterial agent on the fabric do not inhibit the antimicrobial properties; ④ determining the product will not cause human and environmental damage and pollution; ⑤ determine microbial agent does not produce immunity in the life cycle; ⑥ can exhibit excellent antibacterial properties; ⑦ guarantee does not affect the other excellent properties of the fabric. Lv Yanping and other studies of an organic silicon quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent, is prepared by reacting an intermediate amidation oleamide ethyl aminopropyl silane Aminoethylaminopropyl dimethoxysilane as raw materials, oil and methyl conduct body, then using dimethyl sulfate quaternized to obtain silicone quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent oleamide ethyl dimethylaminopropyl silane quaternary ammonium ASOA, and studied its structure and application performance.
      Its preparation of a certain concentration of the solution, into which the cotton cloth impregnated, made of antibacterial cotton cloth. Antibacterial tests showed that when the concentration of the antimicrobial agent is 1. O%, the E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus antibacterial rate has reached 99%. Experiments show that by washing cotton antibacterial agent after finishing a certain washability, after washing 30 times against E. coli antibacterial rate is still more than 80%, indicating that the organic silicon quaternary ammonium compounds containing reactive functional groups, namely A silanol groups formed by hydrolysis with the hydroxyl groups of dehydration condensation of the fiber surface to form a covalent bond, while the cationic N and the negatively charged fibers can also be carried by the surface attraction ionic bonding is formed, with a lasting antibacterial effect.
      Hu Guoqing, etc. developed a disinfection cloth, bactericidal composed mainly of silicon-containing quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agent treatment from antibacterial cloth, were bactericidal effect detection of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis is subject tested bacteria, the bacterial suspension was dropped on a uniform antimicrobial sheet, the results can be antibacterial cloth effect 30min E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus kill all, only Bacillus subtilis kill 78.13%. 60 and washed in detergent solution. After time, the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus kill rate is still up 80.07%.
      Xiaohong and other studies of Quaternary Ammonium modified performance Shaanxi Branch Fine Chemical Co., Ltd. synthetic amino silicone finishing agent of antibacterial, antimicrobial and apply it to the cloth. Antimicrobial Performance tests showed that antibacterial finishing cloth against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans 24h after inhibition rates were 98.12%, 96.86%, 95.14%. Thus, the silicone quaternary ammonium antibacterial finishing agent finishing fabric has good antibacterial effect, and a higher inhibition rate. Performance test results show that its performance is greatly improved flexibility, tear strength remained unchanged, can be widely used in cotton, wool. Blended fabric, super soft finish with good results. Chitosan quaternary ammonium quaternary chitosan obtained, with good antibacterial and moisture absorption, moisture retention. Chitosan with glycidol and trimethyl ammonium chloride was prepared by the reaction of chitosan hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride can be used modacrylic fiber [0, can improve its antibacterial properties and rheology. Some [33] also proposed the use of chitosan as a quaternary ammonium salt derivative of cellulose fiber antibacterial agent, not only with less, and much more significantly than the antibacterial effect alone CHITOOLIGOSACCHARIDE fabric finishing effects.
      Application in Water Treatment
       In order to solve the circulating cooling water of microorganisms have problems, to overcome the current lack of a quaternary ammonium salt obtained using conventional fungicides, Wang Jisheng other research and development of a new non-oxidizing biocide TS-838, the main component of the double quaternary ammonium salts heterotrophic bacteria in water and sulfate-reducing bacteria was better killing effect, the sterilization performance than traditional single quaternary ammonium germicides.
Pan Luting and other natural plant polymer powder as raw material, after modification of a quaternary ammonium salt, obtained by flocculation, corrosion, sterilization and other functions of water treatment chemicals. The study showed that the killing effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria stronger, sterilization rate of 99.9%. And has good flocculation, corrosion inhibition can be achieved once administered meet flocculation, corrosion, sterilization three kinds of quality requirements.
       2.3 Application in paper terms
      With the growing demand for paper, the rapid growth of the paper industry, led to the rapid development of paper-making chemicals, quaternary ammonium salt type cationic surfactant as an important component of surfactant, can not become a paper-making chemicals missing an important ingredient in various processes in the paper have played a significant role in NT. Pulp from the pulp and paper section to section to go through many steps and time, in order to feed during the emergence of biological reproduction, produce slime, typically added cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and other quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant to prevent for sterilization mildew, very good. A large amount of sewage generated in the papermaking process must be processed, a quaternary ammonium salt when treating waste water has the effect of flocculant addition, it can also play the role of sterilization, such as octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride and other cationic surfactants agent. In addition, the quaternary ammonium salt type cationic surfactants in the antistatic paper manufacturing process, the resin barrier control, corrosion and other aspects also have a certain effect.
In addition, quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent may also be applied to a wide range of antibacterial ceramics, glass antimicrobial, antibacterial and antimicrobial plastic home appliances. As currently very popular antibacterial washing machines, refrigerators and other anti-bacterial, anti-microbial material can also be treated with a phone, so that people from contamination during use, to prevent the spread of disease.
      3 Prospect
      As an ideal antimicrobial agent should have a fast-acting, broad-spectrum, long-lasting, stable and safe antibacterial effects. However, the existing antibacterial agents, both yuan machine, organic, biological or natural, do not achieve the desired requirements. Various existing antibacterial agents, has its unique antibacterial mechanism, antibacterial mechanism made only on the characteristics of a comprehensive, in-depth study of various types of integrated antimicrobial agent, in order to further improve the effectiveness of antibacterial agents.
      Currently, the new hot spot antimicrobial research is the development and application of quaternary salt adze. Such quaternary ammonium compounds have a similar structure, except that in place of a phosphorus-containing cationic nitrogenous cations. Quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent is a new generation, the antibacterial activity than two orders of magnitude higher than the same polymer is a quaternary ammonium salt structure, having a broad-spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity and so on.
      Kanazawa and other performance quaternary phosphonium salt-type antibacterial polymer made a series of studies. Casting for Season different substituents on salt-based antimicrobial activity studies have shown that long-chain compounds containing particularly high antibacterial activity. Experimental results show that the antimicrobial activity of the polymer is much higher than the corresponding small molecule compounds with increasing molecular weight, but also a corresponding increase in antimicrobial activity, this is because with increasing molecular weight of the polymer cation content also increases, more conducive adsorbed bacteria. Cation adsorption and membrane interaction caused membrane damage, to kill bacteria. They also found that by copolymerization incorporated in the polymer of two or more antimicrobial group, the method is simple, you can take advantage of different antimicrobial agents, increasing the range of anti-bacterial, anti-bacterial improve efficiency, it is one of the future research directions .

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